In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (i/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms exist that perform calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning.
The words 'algorithm' and 'algorism' come from the name al-Khwārizmī. Al-Khwārizmī (Persian: خوارزمي, c. 780-850) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and scholar.
An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.
An algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed.
Algorithm may also refer to:
A medical algorithm is any computation, formula, statistical survey, nomogram, or look-up table, useful in healthcare. Medical algorithms include decision tree approaches to healthcare treatment (e.g., if symptoms A, B, and C are evident, then use treatment X) and also less clear-cut tools aimed at reducing or defining uncertainty.
Medical algorithms are part of a broader field which is usually fit under the aims of medical informatics and medical decision making. Medical decisions occur in several areas of medical activity including medical test selection, diagnosis, therapy and prognosis, and automatic control of medical equipment.
In relation to logic-based and artificial neural network-based clinical decision support system, which are also computer applications to the medical decision making field, algorithms are less complex in architecture, data structure and user interface. Medical algorithms are not necessarily implemented using digital computers. In fact, many of them can be represented on paper, in the form of diagrams, nomographs, etc.
A concept is an abstraction or generalization from experience or the result of a transformation of existing ideas. The concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are treated in many if not most disciplines both explicitly, such as in psychology, philosophy, etc., and implicitly, such as in mathematics, physics, etc. In informal use the word concept often just means any idea, but formally it involves the abstraction component.
In metaphysics, and especially ontology, a concept is a fundamental category of existence. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is:
Concepts is a 1992 sixteen-disc box set compilation of the U.S. singer Frank Sinatra.
This sixteen CD set was the first major compilation from an entire era of Sinatra's career. This particular set contains every studio album from years with Capitol Records. It also includes the instrumental album Frank Sinatra Conducts Tone Poems of Color, which was new to compact disc with this set. However, it does not include any singles compilations or soundtracks Sinatra released on the label.
Concepts and the related notion of axioms were an extension to C++'s template system proposed for C++11. They were designed to improve compiler diagnostics and to allow programmers to codify in the program some formal properties of templates that they write. Incorporating these limited formal specifications into the program (in addition to improving code clarity) can guide some compiler optimizations, and can potentially help improve program reliability through the use of formal verification tools to check that the implementation and specification actually match.
In July 2009, the C++11 committee decided to remove concepts from the draft standard, as they were considered "not ready" for C++11. There are unofficial plans to add concepts back in a future version of the standard in some form, but no official decision has been made yet. This article documents concepts as they last appeared in a published working paper. A preliminary version of concepts for C++ was implemented as ConceptGCC, and will be made available in GCC 6.