- published: 31 Mar 2012
- views: 698204
A concept is an abstraction or generalization from experience or the result of a transformation of existing ideas. The concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are treated in many if not most disciplines both explicitly, such as in psychology, philosophy, etc., and implicitly, such as in mathematics, physics, etc. In informal use the word concept often just means any idea, but formally it involves the abstraction component.
In metaphysics, and especially ontology, a concept is a fundamental category of existence. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is:
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (^{i}/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms exist that perform calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning.
The words 'algorithm' and 'algorism' come from the name al-Khwārizmī. Al-Khwārizmī (Persian: خوارزمي, c. 780-850) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and scholar.
An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.
Machine learning is a subfield of computer science that evolved from the study of pattern recognition and computational learning theory in artificial intelligence. In 1959, Arthur Samuel defined machine learning as a "Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed". Machine learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and make predictions on data. Such algorithms operate by building a model from example inputs in order to make data-driven predictions or decisions, rather than following strictly static program instructions.
Machine learning is closely related to and often overlaps with computational statistics; a discipline which also focuses in prediction-making through the use of computers. It has strong ties to mathematical optimization, which delivers methods, theory and application domains to the field. Machine learning is employed in a range of computing tasks where designing and programming explicit algorithms is infeasible. Example applications include spam filtering, optical character recognition (OCR),search engines and computer vision. Machine learning is sometimes conflated with data mining, where the latter sub-field focuses more on exploratory data analysis and is known as unsupervised learning.
In computer science, a data structure is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which are the means of specifying the contract of operations and their complexity. In comparison, a data structure is a concrete implementation of the contract provided by an ADT.
Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, relational databases most commonly use B-tree indexes for data retrieval, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers.
Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently for uses such as large databases and internet indexing services. Usually, efficient data structures are key to designing efficient algorithms. Some formal design methods and programming languages emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factor in software design. Storing and retrieving can be carried out on data stored in both main memory and in secondary memory.
Data (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information. Data is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it can be visualized using graphs or images. Data as a general concept refers to the fact that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage or processing.
Raw data, i.e. unprocessed data, is a collection of numbers, characters; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next. Field data is raw data that is collected in an uncontrolled in situ environment. Experimental data is data that is generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording.
The Latin word "data" is the plural of "datum", and still may be used as a plural noun in this sense. Nowadays, though, "data" is most commonly used in the singular, as a mass noun (like "information", "sand" or "rain").
Concepts of Algorithm, Flow Chart & C Programming by Prof. Wongmulin | Dept. of Computer Science Garden City College-Bangalore
Introduction, to, Algorithms, Analyzing, DAA, gate, iit, lectures, tutorial, in hindi, Introduction to fundamental techniques for designing and analyzing algorithms, including asymptotic analysis; divide-and-conquer algorithms
This module explains the concept of Algorithm with the help of real life example. It also describes the concept of Generalized algorithm and its advantages. At Cognifront, we are creating revolution in Engineering Education.. Our Software Products are crafted with latest technology. We embarked on this grand vision to help transform technical education all across this beautiful planet. Become a part of it..
Algorithms are the sets of steps necessary to complete computation - they are at the heart of what our devices actually do. And this isn’t a new concept. Since the development of math itself algorithms have been needed to help us complete tasks more efficiently, but today we’re going to take a look a couple modern computing problems like sorting and graph search, and show how we’ve made them more efficient so you can more easily find cheap airfare or map directions to Winterfell... or like a restaurant or something. Ps. Have you had the chance to play the Grace Hopper game we made in episode 12. Check it out here! http://thoughtcafe.ca/hopper/ CORRECTION: In the pseudocode for selection sort at 3:09, this line: swap array items at index and smallest should be: swap array items at i...
Computer Education for all provides complete lectures series on Data Structure and Applications which covers Introduction to Data Structure and its Types including all Steps involves in Data Structures:- Data Structure and algorithm Linear Data Structures and Non-Linear Data Structure on Stack Data Structure on Arrays Data Structure on Queue Data Structure on Linked List Data Structure on Tree Data Structure on Graphs Abstract Data Types Introduction to Algorithms Classifications of Algorithms Algorithm Analysis Algorithm Growth Function Array Operations Two dimensional Arrays Three Dimensional Arrays Multidimensional arrays Matrix operations Operations on linked lists Applications of linked lists Doubly linked lists Introductions to stacks Operations on stack Array based implementation o...
What is an algorithm? Algorithm http://www.TutorialPort.com Design and Analysis of Algorithms: What is an Algorithm ? In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. An algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function.
In this video, we go over the basics of algorithm analysis, and cover Big-Oh, Omega and Theta notation, as well as some simple examples of looping algorithms.
In this video big-oh, big-omega and theta are discussed
Introductory lesson covering prerequisites related to C programming. This video covers concepts of basic computer setup, algorithms and flowcharts. In case you have any feedback or suggestions do email us at hello@superwits.com.
Po-Shen Loh is a Princeton-educated mathematician, Carnegie Mellon professor, the head coach of the U.S. International Math Olympiad team, and now he’s adding start-up entrepreneur to his knock-out resume. Loh has created Expii, a math and science education tool that aims to turn every smartphone into a tutor. Loh combines his mathematical expertise with crowd-contributing strategies from sites like Wikipedia and Quora to “deliver free education to all of the world using a system that self-organizes in the same way that mathematics self-organizes from its basic assumptions,” says Loh. He hopes it will bring some equity to U.S. education and be a learning revolution for those who could not traditionally afford a tutor. “The idea is that this should cure boredom at the high end and also cure...
Today we’re going to talk about on how we organize the data we use on our devices. You might remember last episode we walked through some sorting algorithms, but skipped over how the information actually got there in the first place! And it is this ability to store and access information in a structured and meaningful way that is crucial to programming. From strings, pointers, and nodes, to heaps, trees, and stacks get ready for an ARRAY of new terminology and concepts. Ps. Have you had the chance to play the Grace Hopper game we made in episode 12. Check it out here! http://thoughtcafe.ca/hopper/ Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios Want to know more about Carrie Anne? https://about.me/carrieannephilbin The Latest from PBS Digital...
Hope it helps:-) sbhoira@gmail.com
Algorithm using Flowchart and Pseudo code Level 1 Flowchart By: Yusuf Shakeel http://www.dyclassroom.com/flowchart/introduction 0:05 Things we will learn 0:21 Level 0:28 Level 1 Flowchart 0:33 Important terms 0:37 Procedure 0:45 Algorithm 0:54 Flowchart 1:00 Pseudo code 1:08 Answer this simple question 1:14 How will you log into your facebook account 1:30 Next question 1:32 Write an algorithm to log into your facebook account 1:44 Algorithm to log in to facebook account in simple English 2:06 Writing Algorithm 2:14 Flowchart 2:16 There are 6 basic symbols that are commonly used in Flowchart 2:20 Terminal 2:27 Input/Output 2:35 Process 2:42 Decision 2:52 Connector 3:00 Control Flow 3:06 All the 6 symbols 3:13 Flowchart rules 3:25 Flowchart exercise 3:28 Add 10 and 20 4:00 Another exerci...
Logistics, course topics, word RAM, predecessor, van Emde Boas, y-fast tries. Please see Problem 1 of Assignment 1 at http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~minilek/cs224/fall14/hmwk.html for a corrected analysis of the space complexity of van Emde Boas trees
what is algorithm and flow chart in video we cover in deep and understand its working all material in Hindi so you don't worry about understanding. so please share this video never forgot subscribe my channel... and watch video complete ....
This Machine Learning Algorithms Tutorial shall teach you what machine learning is, and the various ways in which you can use machine learning to solve a problem! Towards the end, you will learn how to prepare a dataset for model creation and validation and how you can create a model using any machine learning algorithm! In this Machine Learning Algorithms Tutorial video you will understand: 1) What is an Algorithm? 2) What is Machine Learning? 3) How is a problem solved using Machine Learning? 4) Types of Machine Learning 5) Machine Learning Algorithms 6) Demo Subscribe to our channel to get video updates. Hit the subscribe button above. Check our complete Data Science playlist here: https://goo.gl/60NJJS #MachineLearningAlgorithms #Datasciencetutorial #Datasciencecourse #datascien...
This video introduces the concept of Algorithm Design in Computational Thinking. It is part of a short course to introduce Middle and High School teachers to Computational Thinking. The resources are aligned to Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA) K-12 Computer Science Standards 5.2 Level 2: Computer Science and Community. Videos are designed for teachers and activities are designed for teachers to implement with students in their classrooms, although some activities are also useful for teacher understanding. Problem Solving through Computational Thinking for Educators Course: http://www.curriki.org/oer/?rid=101147 Computational Thinking: Algorithm Design http://www.curriki.org/oer/Algorithm-Design-101423/?mrid=101147
Lecture Series on Data Structures and Algorithms by Dr. Naveen Garg, Department of Computer Science & Engineering ,IIT Delhi.
In this video Mr. Indra Kishor, Biyani International Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jaipur, explains about the Algorithm and Flowchart. How can we flow chart from algorithm . We all know about the Algorithm is very important for any programmer, without algorithm we can’t create any program. www.gurukpo.com, www.biyanicolleges.org
Best Book for Java : http://amzn.to/2qlbyQd Data Structure tutorial and Algorithms in Java with practical examples and code practices. This java data structure tutorial will cover up bunch of topics and some of them are the following: Stack in java Queue in java Sorting in java Linked list in java Singly Linked list in java Doubly linked list in java Trees in java Binary search tree in java Hash table in java Student Management System Javascript Tutorial: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLz5rnvLVJX5VdVNddvRTj68X6miAWQ5pz Facebook group: https://web.facebook.com/groups/996305460498149/ Book: http://rineshpk.weebly.com/uploads/1/8/2/0/1820991/data_structures_and_algorithms_in_javatqw_darksiderg.pdf Follow Awais On Twitter https://twitter.com/AwaisMirza01 Follow me on Twitter: h...
Algorithm is very simple and easy to write. It is defined as a set of sequential and well defined instruction to solve a program. Every instruction must be exact and every description is step by step. In this movie, we start to analyse the remote controller operation, then writing an algorithm for a program. The details and order of the events of the controller is important to achieve the result-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowT...
Concepts of Algorithm, Flow Chart & C Programming by Prof. Wongmulin | Dept. of Computer Science Garden City College-Bangalore
In this video big-oh, big-omega and theta are discussed
Introductory lesson covering prerequisites related to C programming. This video covers concepts of basic computer setup, algorithms and flowcharts. In case you have any feedback or suggestions do email us at hello@superwits.com.
This Machine Learning Algorithms Tutorial shall teach you what machine learning is, and the various ways in which you can use machine learning to solve a problem! Towards the end, you will learn how to prepare a dataset for model creation and validation and how you can create a model using any machine learning algorithm! In this Machine Learning Algorithms Tutorial video you will understand: 1) What is an Algorithm? 2) What is Machine Learning? 3) How is a problem solved using Machine Learning? 4) Types of Machine Learning 5) Machine Learning Algorithms 6) Demo Subscribe to our channel to get video updates. Hit the subscribe button above. Check our complete Data Science playlist here: https://goo.gl/60NJJS #MachineLearningAlgorithms #Datasciencetutorial #Datasciencecourse #datascien...
Computer Education for all provides complete lectures series on Data Structure and Applications which covers Introduction to Data Structure and its Types including all Steps involves in Data Structures:- Data Structure and algorithm Linear Data Structures and Non-Linear Data Structure on Stack Data Structure on Arrays Data Structure on Queue Data Structure on Linked List Data Structure on Tree Data Structure on Graphs Abstract Data Types Introduction to Algorithms Classifications of Algorithms Algorithm Analysis Algorithm Growth Function Array Operations Two dimensional Arrays Three Dimensional Arrays Multidimensional arrays Matrix operations Operations on linked lists Applications of linked lists Doubly linked lists Introductions to stacks Operations on stack Array based implementation o...
Lecture 01: Administrivia; Introduction; Analysis of Algorithms, Insertion Sort, Mergesort View the complete course at: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-046JF05 License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Lecture Series on Data Structures and Algorithms by Dr. Naveen Garg, Department of Computer Science & Engineering ,IIT Delhi.
Please give it a thumbs up if you liked the video! Thanks Video project for CIS4930 Special Topics and Algorithms. This video covers the basics of understanding the runtime for algorithms. The question I had when learning this was, "Where is the number coming from that is being compared to the 'n'?... Once I figured out that the number was basically a count of the number of times a for loop actually looped, well, life became much easier for me in regards to understanding runtime. I hope this video helps you have a better understanding of the basics of algorithm runtime. Please feel free to leave a comment for any other computer science related concepts for which you would like to see a video.
MIT 6.006 Introduction to Algorithms, Fall 2011 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-006F11 Instructor: Victor Costan License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Logistics, course topics, word RAM, predecessor, van Emde Boas, y-fast tries. Please see Problem 1 of Assignment 1 at http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~minilek/cs224/fall14/hmwk.html for a corrected analysis of the space complexity of van Emde Boas trees
Get the Code Here: http://goo.gl/Y3UTH Welcome to my Big O Notations tutorial. Big O notations are used to measure how well a computer algorithm scales as the amount of data involved increases. It isn't however always a measure of speed as you'll see. This is a rough overview of Big O and I hope to simplify it rather than get into all of the complexity. I'll specifically cover the following O(1), O(N), O(N^2), O(log N) and O(N log N). Between the video and code below I hope everything is completely understandable.
C Programming Language is the most popular computer language and most used programming language till now. It is very simple and elegant language. 1) This is by far the most comprehensive C Programming course you'll find here, or anywhere else. 2) This C Programming tutorial Series starts from the very basics and covers advanced concepts as we progress. This course breaks even the most complex applications down into simplistic steps. 3) It is aimed at complete beginners, and assumes that you have no programming experience whatsoever. 4) This C Programming tutorial Series uses Visual training method, offering users increased retention and accelerated learning. Every programmer should and must have learnt C whether it is a Java or C# expert, Because all these languages are derived from C. In...
Basic Concepts Prof. Soumen Maity Department Of mathemathics IISER Pune
Analysis and Design of Algorithms By Prof. Sibi Shaji, Dept. of Computer Science, Garden City College, Bangalore
Best Book for Java : http://amzn.to/2qlbyQd Data Structure tutorial and Algorithms in Java with practical examples and code practices. This java data structure tutorial will cover up bunch of topics and some of them are the following: Stack in java Queue in java Sorting in java Linked list in java Singly Linked list in java Doubly linked list in java Trees in java Binary search tree in java Hash table in java Student Management System Javascript Tutorial: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLz5rnvLVJX5VdVNddvRTj68X6miAWQ5pz Facebook group: https://web.facebook.com/groups/996305460498149/ Book: http://rineshpk.weebly.com/uploads/1/8/2/0/1820991/data_structures_and_algorithms_in_javatqw_darksiderg.pdf Follow Awais On Twitter https://twitter.com/AwaisMirza01 Follow me on Twitter: h...
A friendly introduction to the main algorithms of Machine Learning with examples. No previous knowledge required. If you like this, there's an extended version in this playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAwxTw4SYaPknYBrOQx6UCyq67kprqXe3
MIT 6.006 Introduction to Algorithms, Fall 2011 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-006F11 Instructor: Srini Devadas License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Algorithm using Flowchart and Pseudo code Level 3 Pseudo code By: Yusuf Shakeel 0:05 Level 3 0:12 Pseudo code 0:18 About Pseudo code 0:42 Syntax of Pseudo code 1:11 Solving complex problem 2:02 Algorithm and Module 2:34 Module 3:02 Algorithmic Notation 3:08 Name 3:31 Variable name 3:57 Initializing Variable - The Set keyword 4:26 Input - The Read keyword 4:53 Output - The Write and Print keyword 5:28 Begin and End 5:43 Completion of Algorithm - The Exit keyword 6:02 Sub Algorithm 6:22 About sub algorithm - The return keyword 6:54 Calling an algorithm module - The Call keyword 7:12 Control structures 7:28 Sequential Flow 8:02 Selection or Conditional Flow 8:15 Selection Flow - Single Alternative 8:50 Selection Flow - Double Alternative 9:23 Selection Flow - Multiple Alternative 10:17 It...