- published: 31 Mar 2012
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A concept is an abstraction or generalization from experience or the result of a transformation of existing ideas. The concept is instantiated (reified) by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are treated in many if not most disciplines both explicitly, such as in psychology, philosophy, etc., and implicitly, such as in mathematics, physics, etc. In informal use the word concept often just means any idea, but formally it involves the abstraction component.
In metaphysics, and especially ontology, a concept is a fundamental category of existence. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is:
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (^{i}/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms exist that perform calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning.
The words 'algorithm' and 'algorism' come from the name al-Khwārizmī. Al-Khwārizmī (Persian: خوارزمي, c. 780-850) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and scholar.
An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output" and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.
Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm.
It uses the structural conventions of a programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. Pseudocode typically omits details that are essential for machine understanding of the algorithm, such as variable declarations, system-specific code and some subroutines. The programming language is augmented with natural language description details, where convenient, or with compact mathematical notation. The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people to understand than conventional programming language code, and that it is an efficient and environment-independent description of the key principles of an algorithm. It is commonly used in textbooks and scientific publications that are documenting various algorithms, and also in planning of computer program development, for sketching out the structure of the program before the actual coding takes place.
In computer science, a data structure is a particular way of organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Data structures can implement one or more particular abstract data types (ADT), which are the means of specifying the contract of operations and their complexity. In comparison, a data structure is a concrete implementation of the contract provided by an ADT.
Different kinds of data structures are suited to different kinds of applications, and some are highly specialized to specific tasks. For example, relational databases most commonly use B-tree indexes for data retrieval, while compiler implementations usually use hash tables to look up identifiers.
Data structures provide a means to manage large amounts of data efficiently for uses such as large databases and internet indexing services. Usually, efficient data structures are key to designing efficient algorithms. Some formal design methods and programming languages emphasize data structures, rather than algorithms, as the key organizing factor in software design. Storing and retrieving can be carried out on data stored in both main memory and in secondary memory.
Data (/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information. Data is measured, collected and reported, and analyzed, whereupon it can be visualized using graphs or images. Data as a general concept refers to the fact that some existing information or knowledge is represented or coded in some form suitable for better usage or processing.
Raw data, i.e. unprocessed data, is a collection of numbers, characters; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next. Field data is raw data that is collected in an uncontrolled in situ environment. Experimental data is data that is generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording.
The Latin word "data" is the plural of "datum", and still may be used as a plural noun in this sense. Nowadays, though, "data" is most commonly used in the singular, as a mass noun (like "information", "sand" or "rain").
Concepts of Algorithm, Flow Chart & C Programming by Prof. Wongmulin | Dept. of Computer Science Garden City College-Bangalore
This module explains the concept of Algorithm with the help of real life example. It also describes the concept of Generalized algorithm and its advantages. At Cognifront, we are creating revolution in Engineering Education.. Our Software Products are crafted with latest technology. We embarked on this grand vision to help transform technical education all across this beautiful planet. Become a part of it..
Introductory lesson covering prerequisites related to C programming. This video covers concepts of basic computer setup, algorithms and flowcharts. In case you have any feedback or suggestions do email us at hello@superwits.com.
Algorithm using Flowchart and Pseudo code Level 1 Flowchart By: Yusuf Shakeel http://www.dyclassroom.com/flowchart/introduction 0:05 Things we will learn 0:21 Level 0:28 Level 1 Flowchart 0:33 Important terms 0:37 Procedure 0:45 Algorithm 0:54 Flowchart 1:00 Pseudo code 1:08 Answer this simple question 1:14 How will you log into your facebook account 1:30 Next question 1:32 Write an algorithm to log into your facebook account 1:44 Algorithm to log in to facebook account in simple English 2:06 Writing Algorithm 2:14 Flowchart 2:16 There are 6 basic symbols that are commonly used in Flowchart 2:20 Terminal 2:27 Input/Output 2:35 Process 2:42 Decision 2:52 Connector 3:00 Control Flow 3:06 All the 6 symbols 3:13 Flowchart rules 3:25 Flowchart exercise 3:28 Add 10 and 20 4:00 Another exerci...
Please give it a thumbs up if you liked the video! Thanks Video project for CIS4930 Special Topics and Algorithms. This video covers the basics of understanding the runtime for algorithms. The question I had when learning this was, "Where is the number coming from that is being compared to the 'n'?... Once I figured out that the number was basically a count of the number of times a for loop actually looped, well, life became much easier for me in regards to understanding runtime. I hope this video helps you have a better understanding of the basics of algorithm runtime. Please feel free to leave a comment for any other computer science related concepts for which you would like to see a video.
Computer Education for all provides complete lectures series on Data Structure and Applications which covers Introduction to Data Structure and its Types including all Steps involves in Data Structures:- Data Structure and algorithm Linear Data Structures and Non-Linear Data Structure on Stack Data Structure on Arrays Data Structure on Queue Data Structure on Linked List Data Structure on Tree Data Structure on Graphs Abstract Data Types Introduction to Algorithms Classifications of Algorithms Algorithm Analysis Algorithm Growth Function Array Operations Two dimensional Arrays Three Dimensional Arrays Multidimensional arrays Matrix operations Operations on linked lists Applications of linked lists Doubly linked lists Introductions to stacks Operations on stack Array based implementation o...
Introduction, to, Algorithms, Analyzing, DAA, gate, iit, lectures, tutorial, in hindi, Introduction to fundamental techniques for designing and analyzing algorithms, including asymptotic analysis; divide-and-conquer algorithms
Hope it helps:-) sbhoira@gmail.com
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/your-brain-can-solve-algorithms-david-j-malan An algorithm is a mathematical method of solving problems both big and small. Though computers run algorithms constantly, humans can also solve problems with algorithms. David J. Malan explains how algorithms can be used in seemingly simple situations and also complex ones. Lesson by David J. Malan, animation by enjoyanimation.
In this video big-oh, big-omega and theta are discussed
What is ALGORITHM? What does ALGORITHM mean? ALGORITHM meaning - ALGORITHM definition - ALGORITHM explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed. Algorithms perform calculation, data processing, and/or automated reasoning tasks. The words 'algorithm' and 'algorism' come from the name al-Khwarizmi. Al-Khwarizmi was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, geographer, and scholar. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function. Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty), th...
Welcome to part 1 of a new series of videos focused on Evolutionary Computing, and more specifically, Genetic Algorithms. In this tutorial, I introduce the concept of a genetic algorithm, how it can be used to approach "search" problems and how it relates to brute force algorithms. Support this channel on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/codingrainbow Send me your questions and coding challenges!: https://github.com/CodingRainbow/Rainbow-Topics Contact: https://twitter.com/shiffman Links discussed in this video: The Nature of Code: http://natureofcode.com/ BoxCar2D: http://boxcar2d.com/ Source Code for the Video Lessons: https://github.com/CodingRainbow/Rainbow-Code p5.js: https://p5js.org/ Processing: https://processing.org For More Genetic Algorithm videos: https://www.youtube.com...
Peter Shor introduces his eponymous mathematical concept. Visit physicsworld.com for more videos, webinars and podcasts. http://physicsworld.com/cws/channel/multimedia
This Edureka Decision Tree tutorial will help you understand all the basics of Decision tree. This decision tree tutorial is ideal for both beginners as well as professionals who want to learn or brush up their Data Science concepts, learn decision tree analysis along with examples. Below are the topics covered in this tutorial: 1) Machine Learning Introduction 2) Classification 3) Types of classifiers 4) Decision tree 5) How does Decision tree work? 6) Demo in R Subscribe to our channel to get video updates. Hit the subscribe button above. Check our complete Data Science playlist here: https://goo.gl/60NJJS #decisiontree #Datasciencetutorial #Datasciencecourse #datascience How it Works? 1. There will be 30 hours of instructor-led interactive online classes, 40 hours of assignments and...
Concepts of Algorithm, Flow Chart & C Programming by Prof. Wongmulin | Dept. of Computer Science Garden City College-Bangalore
This module explains the concept of Algorithm with the help of real life example. It also describes the concept of Generalized algorithm and its advantages. At Cognifront, we are creating revolution in Engineering Education.. Our Software Products are crafted with latest technology. We embarked on this grand vision to help transform technical education all across this beautiful planet. Become a part of it..
Introductory lesson covering prerequisites related to C programming. This video covers concepts of basic computer setup, algorithms and flowcharts. In case you have any feedback or suggestions do email us at hello@superwits.com.
Algorithm using Flowchart and Pseudo code Level 1 Flowchart By: Yusuf Shakeel http://www.dyclassroom.com/flowchart/introduction 0:05 Things we will learn 0:21 Level 0:28 Level 1 Flowchart 0:33 Important terms 0:37 Procedure 0:45 Algorithm 0:54 Flowchart 1:00 Pseudo code 1:08 Answer this simple question 1:14 How will you log into your facebook account 1:30 Next question 1:32 Write an algorithm to log into your facebook account 1:44 Algorithm to log in to facebook account in simple English 2:06 Writing Algorithm 2:14 Flowchart 2:16 There are 6 basic symbols that are commonly used in Flowchart 2:20 Terminal 2:27 Input/Output 2:35 Process 2:42 Decision 2:52 Connector 3:00 Control Flow 3:06 All the 6 symbols 3:13 Flowchart rules 3:25 Flowchart exercise 3:28 Add 10 and 20 4:00 Another exerci...
Please give it a thumbs up if you liked the video! Thanks Video project for CIS4930 Special Topics and Algorithms. This video covers the basics of understanding the runtime for algorithms. The question I had when learning this was, "Where is the number coming from that is being compared to the 'n'?... Once I figured out that the number was basically a count of the number of times a for loop actually looped, well, life became much easier for me in regards to understanding runtime. I hope this video helps you have a better understanding of the basics of algorithm runtime. Please feel free to leave a comment for any other computer science related concepts for which you would like to see a video.
Computer Education for all provides complete lectures series on Data Structure and Applications which covers Introduction to Data Structure and its Types including all Steps involves in Data Structures:- Data Structure and algorithm Linear Data Structures and Non-Linear Data Structure on Stack Data Structure on Arrays Data Structure on Queue Data Structure on Linked List Data Structure on Tree Data Structure on Graphs Abstract Data Types Introduction to Algorithms Classifications of Algorithms Algorithm Analysis Algorithm Growth Function Array Operations Two dimensional Arrays Three Dimensional Arrays Multidimensional arrays Matrix operations Operations on linked lists Applications of linked lists Doubly linked lists Introductions to stacks Operations on stack Array based implementation o...
Introduction, to, Algorithms, Analyzing, DAA, gate, iit, lectures, tutorial, in hindi, Introduction to fundamental techniques for designing and analyzing algorithms, including asymptotic analysis; divide-and-conquer algorithms
Hope it helps:-) sbhoira@gmail.com
View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/your-brain-can-solve-algorithms-david-j-malan An algorithm is a mathematical method of solving problems both big and small. Though computers run algorithms constantly, humans can also solve problems with algorithms. David J. Malan explains how algorithms can be used in seemingly simple situations and also complex ones. Lesson by David J. Malan, animation by enjoyanimation.
Concepts of Algorithm, Flow Chart & C Programming
Concepts of Algorithm, Flow Chart & C Programming by Prof. Wongmulin | Dept. of Computer Science Garden City College-Bangalore
A video on the concept of KMP pattern matching algorithm.
Video 16 - "Cryptography Algorithms and Protocols" - This second nugget of the Cryptography domain lays out hashing concepts and algorithms like MD5 and SHA. Basic algorithms and encryption concepts are explored including: DES, 3DES, RSA, PGP, Elliptic curve (ECC), AES/AES256, One time pad, SSL/TLS, S/MIME, and PPTP/L2TP.
Topics covered: Concept learning, Find-S algorithm (Audio not working)
http://CppCon.org — Presentation Slides, PDFs, Source Code and other presenter materials are available at: https://github.com/cppcon/cppcon2016 — Algorithms and the Concepts that enable them (Range and Iterator) are designed to work over values distributed in space (VDiS). The algorithms in std and the rangev3 proposal and the parallel algorithm are all focused on efficiently utilizing every resource assigned to them to process values distributed in space. Whenever values are distributed in space, these are the tools to use. Values distributed in time (VDiT) require different Concepts and Algorithms. This talk will explore some of these Algorithms and the requirements that they impose on the Concepts. The result is a library that composes algorithms the same way that the rangev3 proposal...
Video 26 - UPDATE regarding Cryptography Algorithms and Protocols, plus Cryptography Domain. Cryptography domain lays out hashing concepts and algorithms like MD5 and SHA. Basic algorithms and encryption concepts are explored including: DES, 3DES, RSA, PGP, Elliptic curve (ECC), AES/AES256, One time pad, SSL/TLS, S/MIME, and PPTP/L2TP. Cryptography domain lays out the core concepts of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
From this lecture, you can learn how to use ga algorithm provided from MATLAB 2012a or later versions without understanding the concept of genetic algorithm.